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Sucessão definitiva de idoso com 80 anos e ausente há cinco independe de sucessão provisória

A Terceira Turma do Superior Tribunal de Justiça (STJ) decidiu que é possível a abertura da sucessão definitiva prevista no artigo 38 do Código Civil independentemente de prévia sucessão provisória. Para o colegiado, apenas a hipótese do artigo 37 do CC exige a sucessão provisória para a abertura da definitiva.

Com esse entendimento, por unanimidade, a turma deu provimento ao recurso especial em que a recorrente pleiteava diretamente a abertura de sucessão definitiva de seu irmão, pois ele estava desaparecido havia 20 anos e, se estivesse vivo, teria 80 anos – cumpridos, portanto, os requisitos do artigo 38 do CC para a sucessão definitiva.

Segundo os autos, a recorrente (única herdeira do irmão) ajuizou pedido de declaração de ausência e abertura de sucessão porque ele, nascido em 1940, estava desaparecido desde o ano 2000. O pedido foi concedido e, com a declaração de ausência, ela foi nomeada curadora, motivo pelo qual requereu a abertura de sucessão definitiva.

Artigo 38 do Código Civil é hipótese autônoma de sucessão definitiva

O juiz negou o requerimento por entender que seria imprescindível a abertura de sucessão provisória. O Tribunal de Justiça de São Paulo (TJSP) manteve a decisão, sob o fundamento de que, mesmo preenchidos os requisitos do artigo 38 do CC, tal norma não dispensa a abertura de sucessão provisória, mas apenas autoriza a conversão desta em definitiva em período menor que os dez anos previstos no artigo 37.

Relatora do recurso no STJ, a ministra Nancy Andrighi observou que, embora a tese adotada pelo TJSP tenha respaldo na doutrina, essa não é a melhor interpretação dos dispositivos legais que regem a matéria, pois a regra do artigo 38 “é hipótese autônoma de abertura da sucessão definitiva, de forma direta e independentemente da existência, ou não, de sucessão provisória”.

Exigência desarrazoada de sucessão provisória

A magistrada afirmou não ser razoável a exigência de abertura de sucessão provisória quando “é absolutamente presumível a morte do autor da herança”, diante da presença das circunstâncias exigidas pelo Código Civil – 80 anos ao tempo do requerimento e desaparecimento ocorrido há pelo menos cinco anos.

“Não se afigura razoável, com o máximo respeito, o entendimento de que o herdeiro de um octogenário desaparecido há mais de cinco anos precise, obrigatoriamente, passar pela fase da abertura de sucessão provisória, com todos seus expressivos prazos contados em anos”, destacou a ministra.

Interesses do sucedido continuam preservados por dez anos

Nancy Andrighi observou que o artigo 745, parágrafos 2º e 3º, do Código de Processo Civil – também citado como fundamento pelo TJSP – não induz à conclusão de que a sucessão provisória seria sempre obrigatória, mas “somente disciplina, do ponto de vista procedimental, como se dará a conversão da sucessão provisória em definitiva quando aquela se configurar pressuposto lógico desta (artigo 37 do CC)”.

Ao determinar o prosseguimento da sucessão definitiva pleiteada, a relatora lembrou que, embora essa modalidade transmita a propriedade dos bens aos herdeiros, os virtuais interesses de quem teve a morte presumida estarão preservados por mais dez anos, como dispõe o artigo 39 do CC.

“Havendo um improvável regresso, extinguir-se-á a propriedade pela condição resolutória consubstanciada no retorno do ausente”, finalizou a magistrada.

Leia o acórdão no REsp 1.924.451.

Esta notícia refere-se ao(s) processo(s):REsp 1924451
Fonte: STJ
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