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PL garante pensão compensatória após fim de relacionamento; “falta aprofundamento”, avalia jurista

A Câmara dos Deputados analisa o Projeto de Lei 48/2023, que altera o Código Civil para assegurar o pagamento de uma compensação financeira ao cônjuge ou parceiro que, ao fim do casamento ou da união estável, apresentar mudança brusca de padrão de vida.

A compensação, definida como “alimentos compensatórios”, já é prevista nas legislações da França e da Espanha, sendo arbitrada pelo Poder Judiciário sempre que a análise do caso concreto demonstra acentuado desequilíbrio econômico-financeiro após separações.

O projeto, de autoria do deputado Marangoni (União-SP), altera o artigo do Código Civil que assegura ao cônjuge desprovido de recursos o direito à pensão alimentícia que o juiz fixar.

Ao contrário do que ocorre com a pensão alimentícia, no entanto, a proposta estabelece que não será decretada a prisão do devedor de alimentos compensatórios.

A proposta será analisada pelas comissões de Previdência, Assistência Social, Infância, Adolescência e Família; e de Constituição e Justiça e de Cidadania. Depois, seguirá para o Plenário.

Compensação humanitária

O jurista Rolf Madaleno, diretor nacional do Instituto Brasileiro de Direito de Família – IBDFAM, vê no projeto uma boa iniciativa, mas falta aprofundamento. “Talvez fosse a oportunidade de esclarecer o que realmente significam esses alimentos compensatórios.”

Rolf explica que há duas classes de alimentos compensatórios. A primeira categoria tem caráter de indenização e “compensa os sacrifícios praticados por um dos cônjuges em seu detrimento pessoal”. Ele cita casos de mulheres que param de trabalhar para cuidar da família, por insistência do marido ou companheiro.

“Essa pessoa, depois de algum tempo, não consegue manter o padrão de vida que era mantido por conta do provedor. Enquanto o outro cresceu profissionalmente e investiu nele, pois tinha alguém que dava o suporte familiar.”

De acordo com o jurista, é uma forma de “compensação humanitária”. Os alimentos, segundo ele, humanizam o sacrifício ao assegurar que no fim do relacionamento essa pessoa não sofra uma queda brusca de padrão de vida.

Compensação patrimonial

A segunda categoria é destinada a casais com bens geradores de renda, como empresas, fábricas e aluguéis. “Apesar de comuns, ficam na posse de um dos cônjuges, enquanto ambos brigam em juízo pelo fim do relacionamento.”

“Aquele que está na posse desses bens usufrui da renda em detrimento do outro. Esses são os alimentos compensatórios patrimoniais”, explica Rolf.

O especialista pontua a importância de distinguir as duas classes na proposta. “É importante que o texto tenha a complexidade suficiente para que não haja dúvidas sobre o que representam os alimentos compensatórios nessas duas categorias.”

“Alimentos compensatórios têm caráter de indenização, sejam eles humanitários ou patrimoniais. Não são alimentos como os da pensão alimentícia, os quais a pessoa precisa para sobreviver”, esclarece.

Rolf frisa que a prisão é devida em casos de pensão alimentícia, “porque a pessoa pode morrer de fome”. Este, porém, não é o caso dos alimentos compensatórios.

“A pessoa está sendo compensada porque se dedicou mais à casa e aos filhos e menos a sua profissão; ou porque o outro está na posse dos bens. Não é uma questão de sobrevivência, então não cabe prisão”, conclui.

Por Débora Anunciação

Fonte: IBDFAM

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