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STJ – Após perda do poder familiar, casal terá de indenizar adotada por atos que inviabilizaram a manutenção da adoção

A Terceira Turma do Superior Tribunal de Justiça (STJ) reconheceu a uma mulher o direito de ser indenizada em R$ 5 mil pelo casal que a adotou ainda na infância e depois, quando ela já estava na adolescência, desistiu de levar adiante a adoção e praticou atos que acabaram resultando na destituição do poder familiar.

Para o colegiado, apesar de não se descartar a falha do Estado no processo de concessão e acompanhamento da adoção, não é possível afastar a responsabilidade civil dos pais adotivos, os quais criaram uma situação propícia à propositura da ação de destituição do poder familiar pelo Ministério Público, cuja consequência foi o retorno da jovem, então com 14 anos, ao acolhimento institucional.

“O filho decorrente da adoção não é uma espécie de produto que se escolhe na prateleira e que pode ser devolvido se se constatar a existência de vícios ocultos”, apontou a ministra Nancy Andrighi, no voto que foi seguido pela maioria da turma.

A criança – que já vinha de destituição familiar anterior – foi adotada aos nove anos de idade, após longo período em acolhimento institucional, por um casal com 55 e 85 anos. A convivência na nova família foi marcada por conflitos.

Em primeira instância, o juiz condenou o casal a pagar R$ 20 mil por danos morais à adotada, além de pensão alimentícia. Entretanto, o tribunal de segundo grau reformou a sentença, por entender que não foram demonstrados os requisitos nem para a pensão nem para a obrigação de indenizar.

Riscos previsíveis

A ministra Nancy Andrighi apontou que o contexto dos autos – em que uma criança de nove anos, com problemas familiares anteriores, foi adotada por pessoas de idade mais avançada – já apontava para riscos acima daqueles que normalmente são esperados em uma adoção.

Segundo a magistrada, era previsível que a criança, diante de seu histórico de vida, demandaria cuidados especiais e diferenciados, ao mesmo tempo em que se poderia imaginar que os adotantes talvez não estivessem realmente dispostos ou preparados para lhe dedicar esse tipo de atenção.

Além disso, a ministra chamou a atenção para o fato de que as circunstâncias tratadas na ação mostram como uma política pública e social de tamanha relevância “pode ser sabotada pela realidade e, principalmente, pela falta de adequado manejo das suas ferramentas, da qual resultaram sucessivos e incontestáveis equívocos”.

Ponderação e atenção

Nancy Andrighi lembrou que não há impedimento legal para que idosos adotem uma criança, e que é nobre a conduta de, nessa fase da vida, propiciar uma segunda chance a alguém que viveu muito tempo em acolhimento institucional. Entretanto, ela enfatizou que as dificuldades decorrentes da diferença de gerações, que acabaram contribuindo para o conflito, eram previsíveis.

Apesar de ressaltar a importância do trabalho das instituições estatais no sistema de adoção, como o Ministério Público, a ministra apontou que, no caso dos autos, era perceptível a inaptidão dos adotantes – quadro que, no entanto, só foi reconhecido após a conclusão da adoção. Caso não tivessem ocorrido falhas estatais sucessivas, apontou, a criança certamente não seria encaminhada a uma família imprópria para recebê-la.

De acordo com a magistrada, problemas assim mostram que as pessoas interessadas em adotar devem agir e pensar com ponderação, para que a decisão seja fruto de convicção e acompanhada de responsabilidade sobre suas consequências. Quanto aos demais participantes do processo de adoção, afirmou que a análise atenta e individualizada de cada caso é essencial para evitar situações como a dos autos.

Maioridade

Acompanhando o voto da ministra, a Terceira Turma concluiu que a atitude do casal adotante, ao praticar atos que demonstraram sua tentativa de romper os laços criados pela adoção, é passível de condenação por danos morais. O valor da indenização, porém, foi reduzido para R$ 5 mil, diante do entendimento de que, no caso, também houve culpa das instituições estatais.

Quando à pensão alimentícia, Nancy Andrighi esclareceu que a destituição do poder familiar não afasta a obrigação de que os pais prestem assistência material aos filhos. Entretanto, ela lembrou que a adotada já completou a maioridade civil. Dessa forma, apesar de esse fato não impedir a condenação em alimentos, a magistrada entendeu ser necessário que o caso volte ao tribunal de origem apenas para que seja averiguado se a adotada ainda necessita da pensão.

O número deste processo não é divulgado em razão de segredo judicial.

Fonte: STJ

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