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Cai o número de mulheres que usam sobrenome do marido quando casam

Se ostentar o sobrenome do marido já foi um símbolo de status, manter o nome de solteira é, hoje, uma forma de reafirmar a individualidade feminina. A mudança cultural foi captada pelos Cartórios de Registro Civil. Segundo levantamento divulgado na semana passada, houve, nos últimos 20 anos, uma redução de mais de 24% no número de mulheres que adotam o sobrenome do marido depois do casamento.

Em 2002, 59,2% das mulheres faziam essa opção. A partir daí, no entanto, os cartórios começaram a registrar uma queda paulatina. Em 2010, este porcentual já era de 52,5%. Atualmente, equivale a 45% dos matrimônios – índice ainda considerado alto. Do ponto de vista prático, trocar o sobrenome envolve grande burocracia. Historicamente, é um atestado da submissão feminina.

“No dia a dia, às vezes não damos muita importância ao sobrenome das pessoas, mas especificamente no momento do casamento é um dos elementos mais importantes, que tem uma carga emocional grande e um simbolismo de posse bem importante”, afirma o presidente da Associação Nacional dos Registradores de Pessoas Naturais (Arpen-Brasil), Gustavo Fiscarelli. “É um dado central decidir que nome assinar a partir do casamento.”

Mais do que um símbolo de posse, explica a historiadora Mary Del Priore, o nome do marido pode indicar que a mulher é incapaz de gerir sua própria vida.

“Nós herdamos isso do direito romano; mais do que posse, indica a noção de incapacidade, de que a mulher era uma incapaz. Ela tem o nome do homem porque ela é como uma criança”, explica a historiadora, autora de Sobreviventes e Guerreiras: Uma Breve História da Mulher no Brasil de 1500 a 2000 (Ed. Planeta). “O Concílio de Trento (1545 -1563) amarra essa ideia quando organiza a família patriarcal e dá direito de vida e morte da mulher e dos filhos ao homem.”

Facultativo

Até 1977, quando o divórcio foi aprovado no País, adotar o sobrenome do marido era a regra do casamento. Após a aprovação da lei, no entanto, tornou-se facultativo. A Constituição de 1988 igualou os direitos de homens e mulheres. Finalmente, o Código Civil de 2002 permitiu que o homem adotasse o sobrenome da mulher.

A principal opção hoje (de 47% dos casais) é por manter os sobrenomes de família, um aumento de 31% desde 2002. Naquele ano, esta era a escolha para apenas 35,7% dos casais. Dados preliminares deste ano indicam que os números seguem em elevação. Nos primeiros cinco meses de 2022, foi a opção de quase 50% dos casais.

Novidade introduzida pelo Código Civil, a possibilidade de adoção do sobrenome da mulher pelo homem ainda é bem incomum no País. Em 2021, apenas 0,7% fez essa escolha no momento do casamento. A opção teve seu ápice em 2005, quando chegou a 2%. A mudança dos sobrenomes por ambos os cônjuges, opção comum em vários países da Europa, também não é muito popular no Brasil. No ano passado, foi a escolha de apenas 7,7% dos noivos – bem menos do que em 2014, quando foi a opção em 13,8% das cerimônias.

Mudança nos documentos

A escolha dos sobrenomes do futuro casal deve ser comunicada ao Cartório de Registro Civil no ato da habilitação do casamento, quando são apresentados os documentos pessoais previstos em lei. A pessoa que altera um nome deve providenciar a alteração de todos os documentos pessoais. Uma alternativa é apresentar também a certidão de casamento toda vez que tiver que mostrar um documento de identificação.

“Até alguns anos atrás, ao entrar no cartório, a primeira coisa que a mulher perguntava era: ‘Vou ter que adotar o nome do meu marido?’. Porque essa sempre foi a praxe, porque a mãe fez, a avó fez, muitos maridos exigiam”, afirma Fiscarelli. “De alguns anos para cá, isso vem mudando, as mulheres entendem que têm a possibilidade de dizer não, refletindo a evolução da sociedade.”

Segundo Mary Del Priore, sempre prevaleceu o conceito de “a mulher de alguém”. Ao adotar o próprio nome, explica a historiadora, rompe-se com essa ideia. “Hoje, ela não precisa ser mulher de ninguém para ser mulher”, conclui a historiadora.

Fonte: Correio do Povo

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