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Informativo de Jurisprudência do STJ destaca reconhecimento de fraternidade socioafetiva post mortem

Processo: Processo sob segredo de justiça, Rel. Min. Marco Buzzi, Quarta Turma, por maioria, julgado em 04/10/2022.

 

Ramo do Direito: Direito Civil, Direito Processual Civil

 

Tema: Reconhecimento de parentesco colateral em segundo grau socioafetivo (fraternidade socioafetiva) post mortem. Condições da ação. Teoria da asserção. Pretensão abstratamente compatível com o ordenamento pátrio. Possibilidade jurídica do pedido.

 

Destaque

Inexiste qualquer vedação legal ao reconhecimento da fraternidade/irmandade socioafetiva, ainda que post mortem, pois a declaração da existência de relação de parentesco de segundo grau na linha colateral é admissível no ordenamento jurídico pátrio, merecendo a apreciação do Poder Judiciário.

 

Informações do inteiro teor

De forma reiterada, a jurisprudência dos Tribunais Superiores – o STJ e o próprio Supremo Tribunal Federal – tem se orientado pela concepção de que o afeto solidário ínsito às relações familiares consubstancia, por ele mesmo, fonte de parentesco. Referida exegese decorre da margem ampla de integração acima indicada, em virtude do texto normativo com contornos abertos, ao aludir a “outras origens” e, assim, permitir a integração hermenêutica, realizada pelo intérprete da norma.

 

A particularidade do presente caso concerne ao fato de não se tratar de investigação de filiação socioafetiva (paternidade ou maternidade) – hipótese comumente submetida à apreciação do Poder Judiciário -, mas sim do reconhecimento de parentesco colateral em segundo grau, calcado em vínculo socioafetivo fraternal.

 

As instâncias ordinárias, de plano (em apreciação dos requisitos de admissibilidade da petição inicial), afastaram a pretensão autoral ante os seguintes fundamentos: (i) incompatibilidade entre o instituto da socioafetividade e da busca, apenas post mortem, do reconhecimento do vínculo; (ii) a inexistência de declaração judicial prévia acerca da caracterização da posse do estado de filho entre a de cujus e os pais dos autores inviabilizaria a dedução da pretensão, pois é pressuposto para que o parentesco socioafetivo possa estender-se aos demais membros da família.

 

Contudo, os motivos acima declinados não representam óbice ao exercício do direito de ação, tampouco consubstanciam impossibilidade jurídica do pedido. Isso porque, a afetividade é reconhecidamente fonte de parentesco e sua configuração, a considerar o caráter essencialmente fático, não se restringe ao parentesco em linha reta.

 

É possível, assim, compreender que a socioafetividade tenha assento tanto na relação paterno-filial quanto no âmbito das relações mantidas entre irmãos, associada a outros critérios de determinação de parentesco (presuntivo ou biológico), ou mesmo de forma individual/autônoma.

 

Não há falar, portanto, em condição essencial à caracterização do parentesco colateral por afetividade, consistente em prévia declaração judicial de filiação (linha reta) socioafetiva, em demanda movida por pela de cujus em relação aos genitores dos requerentes.

 

Desse modo, não se visualiza óbice, em tese, à pretensão autônoma deduzida, calcada na configuração da posse do estado de irmãos. Afigurou-se prematuro, portanto, o indeferimento da petição inicial, sem que pudessem os demandantes efetivamente demonstrar os requisitos necessários à caracterização do citado status.

 

No âmbito das relações de parentesco, a ideia de posse de estado traduz-se em comportamentos reiterados, hábeis a constituírem situações jurídicas passíveis de tutela. Assim, além da própria aparência e reconhecimento social, o vínculo constituído qualifica a real dimensão da relação familiar/parentesco, erigida sobre a socioafetividade, a qual não pode ser ignorada pelo sistema jurídico.

 

A partir desse pressuposto, infere-se que a citada relação/vínculo, identificada por meio da posse de estado, é passível de ser declarada judicialmente. Trata-se, com efeito, de objeto de declaração a existência de uma situação jurídica consolidada, da qual defluem efeitos jurídicos – pessoais e patrimoniais -, a exemplo do eventual direito sucessório alegado na exordial.

 

No caso, menciona-se que a questão afeta ao direito sucessório, referida pelas instâncias ordinárias como óbice à pretensão veiculada, em realidade demonstra ou corrobora o próprio interesse de agir dos recorrentes – traduzido no binômio necessidade/possibilidade -, ante os efeitos sucessórios decorrentes da aludida declaração.

 

Por fim, no que se refere a eventual motivação essencialmente patrimonial, não compete ao julgador, nesta fase incipiente do processo, tecer conjecturas acerca de eventuais razões para o não ajuizamento de demanda, pela de cujus, em vida, a bem de declarar eventual filiação socioafetiva em relação aos genitores dos autores. A uma, porque, conforme acima delineado, não se trata de pressuposto necessário à declaração de fraternidade (parentesco colateral em segundo grau) socioafetiva; a duas, porque eventual contorno da relação mantida entre a de cujus e os autores, e, reflexamente, aos demais membros da família, configura matéria sobre a qual deverá recair a atividade probatória.

 

Fonte: Informativo de Jurisprudência

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